Bulletin of Dental Education

University of British Columbia FOD Researcher Helps Map the Human Proteome

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Chris Overall, B.D.S., B.Sc. (Dent.)(Hons.),

Twenty years after the release of the human genome, the genetic “blueprint” of human life, an international research team, including the University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry (UBC Dentistry), Chris Overall, B.D.S., B.Sc. (Dent.)(Hons.), M.D.S., Ph.D., FCAHS, FRSC, a clinician scientist with specially training in periodontics, has now mapped the first draft sequence of the human proteome.

The work was published and announced in the Nature Communications and announced by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO). Dr. Overall is the only Canadian scientist involved in the Nature Communications paper.

“Today marks a significant milestone in our overall understanding of human life,” says Dr. Overall, a Professor at UBC Dentistry and a member of the Centre for Blood Research at UBC. “Whereas the human genome provides a complete ‘blueprint’ of human genes, the human proteome identifies the individual building blocks of life encoded by this blueprint: proteins. Proteins interact to shape everything from life-threatening diseases to cellular structure in our bodies.”

With 90% of the proteins in the human body now mapped, Dr. Overall says scientists have a deeper understanding of how individual proteins interact to influence human health, providing insights into disease prevention and individualized medicine.

Their work may have implications for scientists studying potential treatments for COVID-19.

“In COVID-19, for instance, there are two proteomes involved, that of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and that of the infected cells, both of which likely interact with, modify and change the function of the other,” says Dr. Overall. “Understanding this relationship can shed light on why some cells and individuals are more resilient to COVID-19 and others more vulnerable, providing essential functional information about the human body that genomics alone cannot answer.”

As many human diseases result from changes in the composition or functions of proteins, mapping the proteome strengthens the foundation for disease diagnosis, prediction of outcomes, treatment and precision medicine.

“Humans share 99.9% of their DNA between individuals, yet deficiencies in the proteome ‘parts’ stemming from inherited genetic mutations can lead to genetic diseases, or defective or inadequate immune and cellular responses to environmental, nutritional and infection stressors,” says Dr. Overall. “Knowing which proteins are key to protection from disease, and the deficiencies in expression or activity that are hallmarks of disease, can inform individualized medicine and the development of new therapies.”

The paper “ A high-stringency blueprint of the human proteome“ was published in the journal Nature Communications. An editorial about this research, written by Dr. Overall, was also published in the Journal of Proteome Research .

Courtesy of Kathryn Booth, Communications Coordinator, University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry

Published on March 10, 2021

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