For the first time, scientists have made star-shaped, biodegradable polymers that can self-assemble into hollow nanofiber spheres. When the spheres are injected with cells into wounds, these spheres biodegrade, but the cells live on to form new tissue.
Developing this nanofiber sphere as a cell carrier that simulates a cell’s natural growing environment is a very significant advance in tissue repair, said Peter X. Ma, M.S., Ph.D., Professor at the University of Michigan (UM) School of Dentistry. Dr. Ma is the lead author of a paper about the research scheduled for advanced online publication in Nature Materials. His co-authors are Dr. Xiaohua Liu and Ms. Xiaoning Jin, research fellows in Biologic and Materials Science at UM School of Dentistry.
According to Dr. Ma, who also has an appointment at the UM College of Engineering, repairing tissue is very difficult and success is extremely limited by a shortage of donor tissue. The procedure gives hope to people with certain types of cartilage injuries for which there currently are not good treatments. It also provides a better alternative to ACI, which is a clinical method of treating cartilage injuries where the patient's own cells are directly injected into the patient's body. The quality of the tissue repair by the ACI technique isn't good because the cells are injected loosely and are not supported by a carrier that simulates the natural environment for the cells.
To repair complex or oddly shaped tissue defects, an injectable cell carrier is desirable to achieve accurate fit and to minimize surgery. Dr. Ma's lab has been working on a biomimetic strategy to design a cell matrix—a system that copies biology and supports the cells as they grow and form tissue—using biodegradable nanofibers.
Dr. Ma says the nanofibrous hollow microspheres are highly porous, which allows nutrients to enter easily, and mimic the functions of cellular matrix in the body. Additionally, the nanofibers in these hollow microspheres do not generate much degradation byproducts that could hurt the cells.
The nanofibrous hollow spheres are combined with cells and then injected into the wound. When the nanofiber spheres, which are slightly bigger than the cells they carry, degrade at the wound site, the cells they are carrying already have a good growth start because the nanofiber spheres provide an environment in which the cells naturally thrive.
This approach has been more successful than the traditional cell matrix currently used in tissue growth, says Dr. Ma. Until now, there has been no way to make such a matrix injectable so it's not been used to deliver cells to complex-shaped wounds.
During testing, the nanofiber repair group grew as much as three to four times more tissue than the control group, says Dr. Ma. The next step is to see how the new cell carrier works in larger animals and eventually in people to repair cartilage and other tissue types.